Dinosauria Online

Welcome to Dinosauria Online

Feel free to email me questions regarding missing dinosaurs on this site. I am not a trained paleontologist so I wont be able to identify fossils. I have several books in my collection and that's where i get most of my data.

Scientific Facts, Questions & Answers

Small Factoids:
In the dramatic landscape of the western United States lies the Morrison Formation - one of the finest fossil beds in the world.
The word "Dinosaur" was first used in 1842 by British Scientist Sir Richard Owen
The Site was Noticed by the "Linkhounds.com" Educational sites of the year for 1999 - 2003

[ Population Carnivour & Herbivour | Genus & Species | Foot Prints | Turtle Longivity | Inteligent Animals | Chamelions | Total Flying Reptiles | Dino Egg Digs | Snakes & Dinosaurs | Dinosaur Teeth | Dionsaurs and Feathers | Tortoises in Austrillia | T-Rex vs. Spino & Gigano | Tyranosaurus Imperator | Raptor Nesting, IQ & Fossil Digs | T-Rex A Scavenger | Compy & Allosaur Evolution | T-Rex Teeth Vs. Spinosaurus Teeth | Ancient Turtles | 3 Giant Carnivoures(sizes) | T-Rex Geting UP | Dinosaurs in South Wales | Inteligence | Dinosaurs & Oil | Necks & Tails | Dinosaur Defication | Size Evolution | Different Generas | Pet Dinosaurs | Dinosaurs & Fur | Average Kilo Weight | Age of dinosaurs | Dinosaur Anatomy | Dinosaur Nests | Dinosaurs and Gills | Smallest and Fastest | California Dinosaurs | Sleep | Growth | Extinction | New Jersey Dinosaurs | Poison ]


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Date: Nov 14 2002
Question: I have learnt that there were many herbivore dinosaurs than carnivore dinosaurs. What were some reasons/conditions behind that fact?
Answer; The plant eating herbivores greatly outnumbered the meat eating carnivores, probably by at least 20 to 1. This ratio was necessary, particularly if dinosaurs were warm-blooded. Some scientists have suggested that the ratio was closer to 50 to 1. If a T. rex killed a herbivore once a week, that is 52 dead herbivores every year for each carnivore.
It was indeed a very lush, green environment during most of the Mesozoic in many parts of the world. The world was also much warmer and in most of the world there was no change of season the way we have now. This made it possible for plants to continually grow with no dormant period. Plants and trees were very different. Until the last part of the Cretaceous there were no grasses or flowering plants. Ferns grew as large as modern trees, pine-like conifers were very abundant.


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Date: Aug 20 2002
Question: I heard recently that some paeolontologists believe that there was only two species of certopsians. Is that true?
Answer; First, it is important to understand the difference between species and genus. For example, Triceratops is a genus within the ceratopsian family. Other genera (the plural of genus) are Styracosaurus, Torosaurus, Protoceratops, Pentaceratops, and several others. Within each of these genera, there can be more than one species name. These are the second names you see after the genus name. For example, humans are Homo sapiens. Our genus is Homo and our species is sapien. Andy, what I think you might have heard is about the different species of Triceratops. At one time there were as many as six or seven species names for Triceratops, but now scientists think that there are only two, Triceratops horridus and Triceratops prorsus. Notice also that the genus is always capitalized and the species is not.


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Date: Jul 19 2002
Question: I am looking for specific sizes of dinosaur foot prints, stride and shape. Can you help
Answer; The study of dinosaur footprints is not very well organized. There are several books on the subject but none are written for the younger readers. Look up any books by Martin Lockley. He is the world's expert on dinosaur footprints.


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Date: Jul 12 2002
Question: Why do Box Turtles live so long?
Answer; Turtles evolved along with the dinosaurs and during the Mesozoic some grew to huge sizes. It is not possible to know how old they lived way back then, but scientists know that many reptiles can live longer than humans. It has to do with their metabolism, the way their muscles work, and the fact that over many millions of years, turtles who lived longer were able to pass these long-life genes along to their children. Did you know that reptile muscles, which includes their heart, are almost twice as strong as a mammal muscle of the same size?


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Date: Jul 07 2002
Question: What are the Top 10 most inteligent animals on earth presently?
Answer; I work with animals that have been extinct a long time, but this is the type of question that scientists have asked about both extinct and living animals. The important thing to remember is that every animal is as smart as it needs to be. Try to think of animals as the wild creatures they are, and not the pets you see in your neighborhood. All dogs began as wolves many thousands of years ago. A wolf doesn't need to have the intelligence to speak, it only needs to know how to hunt for food, find a mate and find shelter. Wolves are very successful at this, which makes them brilliant at what they do. The same with cats, fish, ants and apes. People have created a world for themselves that is not exactly natural. We change our environment to make it what we want. This gives us a different way of looking at intelligence. We tend to compare animals to us and see how much of what we can do an animal can accomplish. Using this type of measurement, the most intelligent animals (in approximate order) are dolphins, whales, apes, primates, cats, dogs, and pigs. Some birds also seem very smart to people.


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Date: Jun 17 2002
Question: Do know of any dinosaurs that may of had a chameleon-like ability(change colors on command)?
Answer: Because of the limited information we have on them, Bones only. We dont have such data. It is impossible to really know what abilities they had. We do know though that the Stegosaurus could increase the color of its plates by pumping blood through them making them redder but that is only an educated guess from what scientists have found in the fossil bones themselves.


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Date: May 21 2002
Question: About how many types of flying dinosaurs are there? Can you send me a list and where to find pictures of them?
Answer: Well before we start there were no flying dinosaurs - unless you count the birds that most scientists believe evolved from dinosaurs! As for the flying reptiles, there are more than 100 species identified from more than 30 families. They first show up in the Triassic about the same time as the dinosaurs, and appear to have died off during the extinction event at the end of the Cretaceous. One of the best books to read about these creatures is "The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Prehistoric Flying Reptiles" by Dr. Peter Wellnhofer


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Date: May 14 2002
Question: Where do you find the eggs that you can see like the ones on tv?
Answer: The majority of dinosaur eggs are being found in China. Many of those found in North America are fragmentary. Some nice eggs have been found in Argentina. The round eggs have been attributed to segnosaurs, sauropods and Therizinosaurs. The oblong eggs seem to come from theropods. Since only a few identifiable embryos have been found in the eggs it is difficult to figure which dinosaurs are the parents.


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Date: Apr 19 2002
Question: Were dinosaurs and snakes(specifically boas) living in the same time period?
Answer: Snakes began to evolve in the Jurassic, but were generally small. The family that includes the existing species of boas is about 25 million years old.


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Date: Apr 12 2002
Question: Did T-Rex's lose their teeth like humans do?
Answer: Unlike mammals, which have a set of "milk teeth" that are lost for the final set to grow in, dinosaurs continuously replaced their teeth throughout life. When one wore out or was somehow removed, a new one would grow in to fill its place. This is one of the reasons dinosaur teeth are the most common form of dinosaur fossil. The other being that enamel makes them quite strong.


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Date: Apr 01 2002
Question: I have a question for you. Do you or don't you believe that some Dinosaurs were feathered ? How about Dromaeosaurids ('raptors)? Were they feathered? Were ANY Dinosaurs feathered ?
Answer: Yes I do believe they were feathered. Not all but some. The raptors were a good possibility. Due to some new fossil finds it does proove that some dinosaurs had feathers or at least a form of feathers. It is now thought by some Paleontologists that when some dinosaurs hatched they had down feathers which kept them warm in the cooler seasons untill they could handle the weather later on. My thoughts on this is that most bird hipped dinosaurs had feathers because they more closely resembled birds than the lizard hipped dinosaurs. They were probably evolving towards modern day birds.


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Date: Mar 11 2002
Question: I'm looking for information on why there are no current terrestrial tortoises living in australia and I was wondering if Meiolania is considered terrestrial tortoise. If this is true when did it go extinct and are any of the factors that led to it's extinction known. If Meiolania is not considered a terrestrial tortoise any information you could provide as to why there are no terrestrial tortoises in australia would be very helpful. Thank you.
Answer; This one I can't answer. I would guess that the reason for the lack of tortoises is the same that there were no placental mammals until man introduced them - isolation from the rest of the world. It is likely that at one time there were members of the turtle family that lived on the land, but they may have gone extinct for a number of reasons. This is just a guess.


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Date: Feb 16 2002
Question: I have seen plenty of shows about t-rex, and some dino experts have said that t-rex had a bite so strong(3,000 pound bite), that he would have easily killed spino or giganotosaurus. Is this true?
Also in jurassic park 3 they make the spino look like he was much bigger than the t-rex. Was the spino infact really that much bigger
Answer: yes the tyranosaurus did have a very powerfull bite but compared to the spinosaurus and giganotosaurus and their size even though the bite was strong the other two may have been quicker and deadlier. Since there is no true evidence of these three goliaths coming together in our fossil reccord I am safe to say that I dont know who would win the battle between these three giants.
Yes the Spinosaurus was in fact bigger and heavier than the Tyranosaurus Rex.


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Date: Jan 25 2002
Question: Hello, my question to you is about the Tyrannosaurus Imperator, upon reading the articles and flipping through sites, it seems to me that this new dinosaur is supposedly larger than any known carnivore, even larger than Giganotosaurus. They named it Tyrannosaurus Imperator because they believe that it is a new kind of Tyrannosaurus, but couldn't it be just a bigger Tyrannsaurus Rex if I may add. Also, how long do you believe it will take before we can actually get official words on this Tyrannosaurus Imperator?
Answer: With regard to Tyrannosaurus imperator, there is no recognized species with this name. None of the fossils attributed to this creature have been identified as belonging to any specific dinosaur, much less being a large member of the tyrannosaur family that would justify its own species. The scientists we have spoken with about this supposed giant believe that it is most likely a damaged rex fossil of no special proportions, and possibly bones that do not even belong in the tyrannosaur family. The people who own these fossils have not made them available for serious study, which raises questions to their authenticity.


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Date: Jan 23 2002
Question: I may want to be a palentoligist when I grow up. How far away do you have to travel when you are on a dig?My favorite dinosaur is a Velociraptor are sure that when they have eggs and they lay them they just leve the eggs there?And what tipes of dinosaurs did they eat? Also me and my friend want to make a movie with my video camera, and it is mostly about Velociraptors.So I was wondering if you could give me some tips about how Velociraptors act.I know they are smart,but are they smart enough to set a trap?
Answer: Well it all depends on what you are looking for. If it is ocean fossils you can find them close by on the california coast, but only in certain areas. If you are looking for dinosaur bones Montana is a good spot as well as some other areas that are in other states or even countries. When the raptors lay the eggs It is possible that they did leave them but not for certain. The evidence that we have to go by is very slim to none since we are working with fossils. Velociraptors ate any kind of animal that they could overpower. From compsognathus to the triceratops. They even attacked apatosaurus but im guessing that would only be when there were many raptors to do the attack. Now the movie thing is a neat idea. The raptors had a fairily decent sized brain so they were smart. But smart enough for traps that is jurassic park 3's creativity at work. It is unknown and probably will not be known how inteligent or tricky these raptors are but if the meteor hadnt hit I would say they would be one of the dominant life forms today.


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Date: Jan 22 2002
Question: I was wondering what your take on the debate of the T-Rex as being a scavenger as apposed to a predator? From information I have gathered I believe it to be a scavenger. Many people claim the T-Rex as being preditorial but due to its' physiology I think it would be more reasonable to claim him as being a scavenger. Picture him with a similar appearence as say having a vulture looking head and reaking of decay which I think makes him that much cooler.
Answer: Actually you are partially correct. The Tyranosaurus was a Scavenger for the most part. Because of its sense of smell and its visual acuracy and its small arms it has been theorized to be a scavenger. Not only that but its teeth tell the tale as well. If the Tyranosaurus was to bite into a strugling prey like a stegosaurus it would have brooken its teeth or have been severily injured. Because of this evidence we can safely assume that the T-Rex was mostly a scavenger like a land based vulture or a kimodo dragon. Others say that it may have taken down small prey this is also a possibility in the theory. Yet without actually being there we have no Facts to accurately state that the Tyranosaurus was only a scavenger.


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Date: Dec 08 2001
Question: I was wondering about my two favorite dinosaurs, Allosaurus and Compsognathus, what they might have evolved into. Like Allosaurus, was he a direct ancestor of T-Rex, they did live in the same general area. Did the compy turn into birds or did it maybe live in packs like in Jurassic Park?
Answer: Direct ancestors are not knowable in the fossil record. To prove something is a direct ancestor, you must have an unbroken chain leading from it to the descendant. This never happens in the fossil record because it is too sparse. You can identify possible ancestors. If something has no derived traits of its own and occurs early enough, then it is a possible ancestor. But a later discovery could always reveal it to be an unspecialized offshoot from the main lineage.
Allosaurus occurs early enough to be the ancestor of Tyrannosaurus_, but it is certainly not the ancestor, because it has many derived traits which it does not share with Tyrannosaurus. Allosaurus belongs to a different branch of tetanuran theropods than Tyrannosaurus. Allosaurus is an allosaurid carnosaur, while Tyrannosaurus is a tyrannosaurid coelurosaur. Eotyrannus is an early (Early Cretaceous) member of Tyrannosauroidea, the coelurosaurian clade which culminated with T. rex. I don't know if it is a possible ancestor, but it is at least close. The poorly known Stokesosaurus, which lived alongside Allosaurus in the Late Jurassic of North America, may also be a basal tyrannosauroid. These are both small animals - tyrannosauroids did not get large until the Late Cretaceous, as far as we know. Allosaurus's group, Allosauridae, persisted into the Early Cretaceous, culminating in enormous giants like Giganotosaurus and Carcharodontosaurus, but the clade seems to have died out after that.

Compsognathus lived alongside Archaeopteryx, the earliest known avian, in the Late Jurassic of Europe, so it could not possibly have ben ancestral to birds, although birds probably did have an ancestor resembling it. Birds are more closely related to deinonychosaurs ("'raptors"), then oviraptorosaurs and therizinosaurs, and then other coelurosaurs like Compsognathus. Compsognathus is a fairly primitive coelrosaur, so the ancestral coelurosaur, which gave rise to birds, deinonychosaurs, oviraptorosaurs, therizinosaurs, ornithomimosaurs, tyrannosauroids, and others, was probably not too dissimilar from it or other basal coelurosaurs like Coelurus and Ornitholestes. Since Compsognathus is known only from 2 specimens, it is impossible to know much about its social structure at present.


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Date: Nov 11 2001
Question: When and what were the first developed turtles throughout the different periods of the earth?
Answer: I dont have an exact answer but this is what I do have.
THE FIRST TURTLES: Turtles first appeared on the earth around 200 million years ago, during the Triassic Period. Proganochelys quenstedi was the first known turtle (Steel and Harvey, 1989). Proganochelys lived during the late Triassic Period. It had a fully developed shell and a turtle-like skull and beak. However, Proganochelys had several primitive features not found in turtles today. These traits included small teeth in its mouth, a clavicle, and a simple ear. This early turtle also was unable to withdraw its head or legs into its shell.

By the middle of the Jurassic Period, turtles had split into the two main groups of turtles found today, the side-necked turtles (pleurodires) and the arch-necked turtles (cryptodires). These two groups developed neck retraction seperately and came up with different solutions. Modern side-necked turtles are found only in the southern hemisphere and withdraw their heads sideways under the shell. The largest freshwater turtle to ever live, Stupendemys geographicus, was a side-necked turtle. Ten thousand years ago, it lived in South America. It reached a length of almost 8 feet (2.4 m). Arch-necked turtles are the dominant group of turtles today. They retract their heads in an S-shaped curve. Scutemys was one of the first arch-necked turtles. The decendants of Scutemys include the box, pond, and subaquatic turtles, as well as tortoises. Early forms of soft-shelled turtles (Trionyx) originated in the Jurassic Period, but did not become common until later.

Archelon was a Cretaceous sea turtle. It was the largest turtle to ever live. Illustration by Jeff Dawson. It was during the late Jurassic that sea turtles appeared. It is believed that sea turtles are the descendants of turtles that inhabited swamps and marshes during the Late Triassic. The largest turtle to ever live, Archelon ischyros, was a sea turtle that lived during the Cretaceous Period, over 65 million years ago. It reached lengths of 9.5 to 13 feet (3 - 4 m). Fossils of this giant turtle have been found in the central United States. During the Cretaceous, this area was covered by the large Niobara Sea. Because of its weak shell, Archelon is thought to be a possible ancestor of the modern leatherback turtle. Also during this period, many other modern sea turtles appeared. Fossils of the green turtle and the loggerhead turtle can be found in rocks from the Cretaceous.

Meiolania had a horned skull that was 2 feet (60 cm) across. Illustration by Jeff Dawson. The fossils of snapping turtles are first found in rocks from the Eocene Epoch. Other turtles alive during this time included Chisternon and Baena. One of the strangest turtles, Meiolania platiceps, lived in Australia during the Pleistocene. Meiolania had a skull 2 feet (60 cm) across (Steel and Harvey, 1989). On the back of its skull were two large horns.

MODERN TURTLES: While the ancestors of modern turtles have gone extinct, there is still a great diversity of turtles. Today, there are around 250 species of turtles in the world, 8 species of which are sea turtles, 180 species that are freshwater turtles, and the remaining species living on land. In the United States and Canada, there are close to 40 native species.


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Date: Oct 15 2001
Question: I was wondering how long was the longest spinosaurus thooth ever found. Is it bigger than the T.Rex's?
Answer: We curently know only that the Spinosaurus tooth was in actuality the same size as the t-rex's tooth and in fact the tooth was larger than T-Rex's. From the fossil records the Spinosaurus was just as large if not a bit bigger than T-Rex but those fossils still say that it wasnt threw growing. So it could be much larger than the T-Rex, even to the point of being as large as Giganotosaurus! Also note that due to the conical teeth of Spinosaurus, evidence points to it being mostly a fish eater "Pisciverous" due to the conical shape of its teeth.


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Date: Aug 22 2001
Question: To my knowledge, I was told that there is a new T-Rex find, somebody by the name of Rigby I believe. I was told that this T-Rex is supposedly bigger than the Giganotosaurus, I was curious if this is true. Also I would like to add, some books and internet sections I've read, the sizes for T-Rex, Giganotosaurus, and Spinosaurus seem to differ, are people just guessing the size because in one place T-Rex is over 50 ft long, which means he would be bigger than Giganotosaurus. If you have the time to answer these it would appreciate me greatly.
Answer: To answer your question the sizes do differ. They measure different skeletons and different authors put the data into the books. Now if that data is correct that is left to be seen. The only way to guarantee the exact length of a Tyrannosaurus Rex, Giganotosaurus, and Spinosaurus, is to actually measure them from nose to tip of tail. Now for the new Tyrannosaurus Rex I have heard no news of one bigger than the Giganotosaurus. If this is true it would mean that it is a relative of the Tyrannosaurus not The Tyrannosaurus itself. The reason we know this is because the fossils found of the largest T-Rex tell us that it is an adult and there for wont get much bigger. And how we know this is by looking at the fossilized bone or using the carbon-dating method which is rarily used.


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Date: Jun 29 2001
Question: Please tell me how does tyrannosaurus get up?!?
Answer: Well when a Tyrannosaurus Rex lays down to rest and wants to get up afterwards the T-Rex uses its small arms to push it partially off of the ground making the body parallel to the ground. In this crouched and almost sitting position it swings its head and body in a backward motion and like a teeter totter the T-Rex is able to stand upright.
An explanation from a paleontologist states: The arms of Tyranosaurus would secure the front of the body while the rear legs were straightened, the upper body would then be tilted back to bring the tyrannosaurid upright. Diagram Of Self Righting T-Rex


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Date: Jan 21 2001
Question: What Dinosours lived in South Wales?
Answer: The only two Welsh Mesozoic Dinosaurs I know of are "Newtonsaurus Cambrensis" (originally "Megalosaurus Cambrensis") and some specimens of "Thecodontosaurus antiquus."


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Date: Jan 10 2001
Question: Which dinosaurs were smarter?...the plant eaters or the meat eaters?
Answer:Dinosaur inteligence: Dinosaurs are usually considered to have been dim-witted, because most of them had very small BRAINS in proportion to the SIZE of their bodies. However, recent studies have caused scientists to think that perhaps dinosaurs were not as supitd as was formerly thought. They have discovered evidence that many kinds of dinosaurs - COELUROSAURS, ORNITHOPODS, CERATOPSIANS, PROSAUROPODS, and even SAUROPODS (which had tiny brains in comparison to their body size) - HERDED together and apparently protected their YOUNG. These are considered rather intelligent things to do. Also, most THEROPODS had relatively large brains. Those of CARNOSAURS were huge; the brain of TYRANNOSAURUS was even larger than human brains. Of course, carnosaurs were much larger than humans, but even so, their brains were a quite respectable size. Having a large brain in comparison to body size is associated with superior inelligence in modern animals. ANKYLOSAURS and STEGOSAURS had very small brains, but if nothing else, they managed to live 50 million years or more, and that is not bad for an animal such as STEGOSAURUS with a golf-ball-size brain. The most intelligent of all the dinosaurs probably was TROODON. It probably was at least as smart as an ostrich., which is smarter than any REPTILE living today.


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Date: Nov 19 2000
Question: Is oil connected to dinosaurs?
Answer:Yes and no. Oil is fossil fuel and a lot of it was created at the time of the Dinosaurs. So were the other two fossil fuels -- natural gas and coal. However, pretty much all of the oil is made from the plants growing then -- mostly huge ferns as big as today's trees, not from the Dinosaurs. Then as now the trees in the forest make up almost all of the biomass, not the animals. But some of the Dinosaurs did go into the primordial soup when they died.


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Date: Sun, 18 Jun 2000
Question: I am 4, and would like to know why dinosaurs have long necks and long tails?
Answer:Dinosaurs like the brontosaur/apatosaur use their tales like a tripod to help them balance when they are on their hind legs reaching into the tall trees for food. It is also our theory that they used their tails as weapons to literaly whip the predators and even knock them down.
Not all dinosaurs had long necks. Take for instance the Triceratops, its neck was really short and it had a short tail. It mostly ate plants on the ground and when in tripod stance it ate leaves in the lower areas of the trees.


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Date: Tue, 13 Jun 2000
Question: My daughter Dakota age three insists on asking you this question how do dinosaurs poop and pee? I answered to her that was probably similar to how our dog does? Do you perhaps have any pictures or graphs to show her a general area?
Answer: *laughs* ok that is a new one. Well I would have to say that the discovery movie/biography "Walking with dinosaurs" is the best way of showing how they um... deficated and relieved themselves. You used the dog as an example? Not even close ^_^ dinsoaurs had cloacias which house all necessary organs to relieve themselves & reproduce. To give a description of defication and urination is like that of a femail horse. In the sence that the deficates are in clumps and the urin flows like a stream away from the body unlike a dog heiking its leg. ^_^


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Date: Thu, 8 Jun 2000
Question: I have a simple question. In prehistoric times it seems everything grew so huge. Why where dinosaurs so big? If they are related to the common day lizard why don't we see any 50 ton lizards any more? What stopped the growth?
Answer: Many millions of years ago when the dinosaurs were alive there was plenty of food to sustain all life. There was a ballance in nature. They were allowed threw their genetics and evolution to grow bigger. When the impact of the meteor occured it caused a food shortage over several hundred to thousands of years and because of this the larger predators and herbivours neaded to adapt and evolve to survive. In essence become smaller through evolution.
Question 2:Thank you for answering my question. If their genetics allowed for this type of growth to occur does this mean that over a long period of time the modern day lizard could grow into dinosaur type creatures if the food supply could sustain them?
Answer 2: Well if the human race wasnt here to stop that from hapening and the reptiles didnt have to wory about large mammilian predators then yes after a few million years they may come to be really large but not like what we had in the past in shape and design. In nature it always takes longer to get bigger than it does to get smaller.


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Date: Thu, 1 Jun 2000
Question: How many particular dinosaurs were there? (Different types).
Answer: No one really knows the answer to how many dinosaurs there were. But so far 1,000 different genera have been found and named.


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Date: Thu, 27 Apr 2000
Question: How do you take care of a dinosaurs.
Answer: If you are speaking as if they were alive today then i would say for the small dinosaurs give them room and plenty of food. Try to get them out of the habit of scratching the floors or furniture :) For the big ones You nead a lot of land like 36 acres or a at least a miles worth of land because they like to move around and graze. For the carniverous dinosaurs that are large dont get one they are untaimeable and they might eat the neighbors for lunch ^_^


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Date: Sun, 30 Apr 2000
Question: How do we know that dinosaur's were not furry???
Answer: Well we have fossil skin imprints that show that they were scaily and that some even had rough eliphant like skin. But that is only a small handfull of fossilized imprints. In all actuallity some may have had some form of hair but for now they are as "Jurassic Park and "Walking with Dinosaurs" interpreted them.


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Date: Mon, 10 Apr 2000
Question: how much does an average dinosaur weigh in kilograms?
Answer: On average lets say the Triceratops sizes would be average. In that case the average weight in kilos would be 4999.95 which is 5 tons. Go here for conversion charts.


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Date: Mon, 3 Apr 2000
Question: My daughter needs to find out "the average life span of most dinosaurs"? and "which dinosaur's name means thunder lizard"?
Answer: The average life span on small dinosaurs are just a few years but on the larger dinosaurs like brontosaurus they can live up to over 100 years old. The Thunder Lizard is also known as Brontosaurus.


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Date: Thu, 30 Mar 2000
Question: We are 2 other pupils from Werrington Primary School. we would like to ask another question which we hope that you can answer. What were the insides of a dinosaur like?
Answer: I have 2 pics of the internal anatomy of dinosaurs on my page click here for the Bipedal dinosaur and/or the Quadrapedial dinosaurs


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Date: Tue, 14 Mar 2000
Question: Where did dinosaurs lay their eggs,and what did the nest look like???
Answer: Some dinosaurs laid their eggs in nests much like crocodilians did by using rotting grasses and foliage to incubate the eggs. Some nests were made by diging holes in the ground and then burying the eggs so that no predators could find them. Just like turtles do. Others were suposedly just dug out holes in the ground that conformed to the eggs and that allowed the mother to incubate them with her body


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Date: Thu, 9 Mar 2000
Question: Did dinosaurs have gills?
Answer: No dinosaurs did not have gills. Dinosaurs are classified as archosaurs which is a branch of the family "reptile". Reptiles by definition do not have gills. Icthyosaurs are reptiles also, however they are not dinosaurs as dinosaurs are strictly terrestrial.


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Date: Tue, 7 Mar 2000
Question: What are the names of the smallest dino and the fastest dino. I am doing research for dino night at my school, churchill elementary.
Answer: One of the smallest known dinosaurs is Compsognathus was basically the size of a chicken. The Compsognathus measured a total length of only 28 inches or (70cm), most of it being tail
One of the fastest dinosaurs is Ornithomimus.

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Date: Tue, 6 Mar 2000
Question: My daughter Kaitlynn is doing a report on dinosaurs in California. Could you help us with any information on dino finds in California?
Answer: California Dinosaurs:
1) "Labocania" Saurischia, Theropoda
La Bocana Roja Formation
Baja, California, Mexico
Late Cretaceous (campanian 70-80 mil.)

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Date: Sun, 5 Mar 2000
Question: How do you think dinosaurs went about sleeping? Were they in danger at night? Were any nocturnal? Did the larger dinosaurs lie down to sleep? Thank you for your help. My kindergarteners are anxious to know!
Answer: Dinosaurs were like some modern day animals. They didnt sleep everyday and if they did they did it while they were half awake so they could avoid being eaten by the predators, like the horse of modern day.
Yes the dinosaurs were in some danger at night.
Yes some dinosaurs were nocturnal. Which ones we have yet to know but it is suspected that the dinosaurs with large eyes had the ability to see during the night, so they must have been nocturnal.
No the larger dinosaurs did not lie down to sleep because the energy it took to get back up would be tremendous. Also they would not be able to get up fast so the predators would have an easier time hunting them. The Brontosaurus for example locked its joints in its legs so that it stood up while it slept, like the horses of modern day.

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Date: Sat, 4 Mar 2000
Question: My friend is wondering how long it takes for a baby dinosaur to grow into adulthood.
Answer: Well nobody really knows that one not even the dinosaur experts. The best we can estimate is the amount of time a bird takes to grow up from an egg to an adult is about 6 months and a crocodile egg to a full grown crocodile is around 8 months. So my estimate is around 7 months total for average sized dinosaurs standing about 3 feet tall to 6 feet tall. And several of years for the larger ones. But like I said nobody really knows.

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Date: Mon, 28 Feb 2000
Question: Can you please tell our class how and why did dinosaurs disappear?
Answer: Well knobody knows really why they dissapeared or how but there are a couple of sound theories.
(1) 65 Million years ago a huge meteor impacted the surface of earth in the "Mexican Yucatan Peninsula" area. That impact threw up billions of tons of molten earth and ash. The molten rock fell back on the earth like a meteor shower and causing mass forest fires. The ash and smoke encompased the earth causing a mass black out for centuries. Because of this, a mass global weather change occured. The ash blocked the suns rays and light which made the earth get much colder killing the weak and causing a slow death for the rest. The plant eaters (herbivours) began dying because of the lack of food. The meat eaters (Carnivours) were able to eat the dying dinosaurs but eventually their food source dwindled too nothing. Not only the land going dinosaurs were being affected but also the sealife and flying animals were dying out to. Annother problem was the ash and the difficulty to see and breathe. They say that the earth was covered by 1 to 2 feet of ash because of the impact.

(2) The other theory is that when the single land mass called Pangea broke up into separate continents the dinosaurs evolved differently and became imune to the diseases and viruses of that continent. But when there was a massive techtonic shift (earthquake) that brought a land bridge up out of the watter. This conected 2 or more continents which made it easy for the dinosaurs to travel from one land mass to the other. When the dinosaurs were reintroduced to the other continent they both suffered a viral war. The viruses that the dinosaurs were imune to on one side made the other dinosaurs sick on the other side and vice versa. Eventually over a period of centuries and even thousands of years they all died out except for a rare few.

(3)The last theory that tells of the demise of dinosaurs was that volcanoes lit by the shifting continents, rather than an asteroid collision, had spewed gas, ash and iridium into the atomosphere, water and earth essentially creating the same sort of effect as proposed by the asteroid theory. What impact that asteroid actually had is purely speculative as well and modern volcanoes compete very nicely with the pollution man creates today though they are compartively few.


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Date: Sat, 11 Feb 2000
Question: I am trying to find out what dinosaurs lived in what is now New Jersey.
Answer: New Jersey dinosaurs:
1) Dryptosaurus, Saurischia, Theropoda
New Egypt Formation
Barsborough, Glouster County, New Jersey
Late Cretaceous (Late Maastrichtian 64-70 mil.)

2) Hadrosaurus Foulkii, Ornithischia
New Egypt Formation
Greensand, New Jersey
Late Cretaceous (Campanian 70-80 mil)

3) Ornithotarsus, Ornithischia
Monmouth Formation
Late Cretaceous (Campanian 70-80 mil)


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Date: Fri, 11 Feb 2000
Question: Was their a Dinosaur that spit poison on its prey like the movie Jurrasic Park. If so what is the name.
Answer: As of yet we have no true information on such a dinosaur actually being able to spit venom on its prey like the Dilophosaur in Jurassic Park. In real science The Dilophosaur really has no evidence of being able to spit venom or even have a neck frill.